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Evaluation Tools

As MB is scaled up, we are interested in continually evaluating effectiveness and implementation to understand how MB functions in various settings and communities.

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Research Requirements & Assessments

Mothers & Babies (MB) is being increasingly sought out as a way for programs to address depression and anxiety among their participants. As MB is scaled across the United States, we are continually interested in understanding how the intervention functions in the real world.

Our evaluation efforts fall into two buckets: 1) measuring implementation outcomes via a survey that is administered to service providers or program supervisors who have been trained in MB on an annual basis, and 2) collecting de-identified client-level data on an annual basis to look at depression scores (and other outcomes) pre- and post-implementation. Below you will find a list of recommended and optional assessments that can be administered to clients or service providers.

We hope that our evaluation efforts will be collaborative in nature. We will work with you to formulate an evaluation plan that makes the most sense for your site. Please reach out to us as you have questions, concerns or comments about evaluation at mothersandbabiesnu@gmail.com.

If you are a researcher and are interested in using the MB curriculum, please contact us.


Assessment Tool & Outcome Measured Pre-Implementation Post-Implementation
Service Provider Demographics X
Implementation Fidelity (MB Group, MB 1-on-1) (Completed after each session) X
Perceived self-efficacy in delivering MB (Completed after full MB Course delivery) X
Client Demographics X
4-item Perceived Stress Scale X
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale or Patient Health Questionnaire X X
MB Acceptability to Client: Understanding & Enjoyment of MB Content, Perceived Helpfulness & Frequency of MB Skills Use (Completed after full MB Course) Participant Feedback Form in English or Spanish (Completed after each session/periodically throughout MB Course) X


Outcome Indicator Assessment Tool Description Pre- and Post-Implementation
Behavioral Activation Behavioral Activation Depression Scale 9-item self-report measures changes in avoidance and activation behaviors X
Mood Regulation Negative Mood Regulation Scale  This 30-item self-report scale measures behaviors and cognitions during times when the subject is upset X
Social Support Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale  19 item self-report scale designed to measure social support in 4 domains: emotional/informational, tangible, affectionate, and positive social interaction X
Decentering Experiences Questionnaire 20 item self-report scale designed to measure decentering and rumination X
Stress Perceived Stress Scale-10-items This 10-item self-report scale measures the degree to which situations in one’s life are perceived as stressful. A validated 4-item scale is also available (above)
Pleasant Activities Pleasant Events Schedule  22 questions from this 320-item scale evaluate the frequency of occurrence and subjective enjoyability of a number of commonly rewarding events X
Relationship with Partner Dyadic Adjustment Scale  7 questions from this 32-item scale measure consensus in decision-making, satisfaction in relationship, and cohesion X
Subjective Well-Being Flourishing Scale 8-item self-report measure of self-perceived success in areas such as relationships, self-esteem, purpose, and optimism X
Anxiety Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale (GAD-7)  A 7-item self-report measure of anxiety symptoms  X
Emotional Distress  PROMIS Emotional Distress-Anger X
Trauma Psychometric Assessment of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised  Composed of 10 prenatal risk factors for postpartum depression, measured by 32 items X
Other Commonly Used Depression Symptom Measures Beck Depression Inventory(Recommended) 21-item self-report measure of depressive symptoms X
Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale 20-item self-report measure of depressive symptoms X
Patient Health Questionnaire-9 9-item self-report measure of depressive symptoms, reflective of 9 core symptoms of major depression. X
Patient Health Questionnaire-2 2-item self-report measure of depressive symptoms (depressed mood and loss of interest) X
Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology 16-item self-report measure of depressive symptoms X
Outcome Indicator  Assessment Tool  Description *Pre-/Post-Implementation
Parenting Behavior Parental Cognitions and Conduct Toward the Infant Scale This 31-item self-report measure assesses 4 parenting dimensions: parental self-efficacy, perceived parental impact, parental hostile-reactive behaviors, and parental overprotection  X
(in-person observation) Parenting Interactions with Children: Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO) The  PICCOLO is a checklist of 29 observable developmentally supportive parenting behaviors with children ages 10–47 months in four domains. X
Child Temperament  Infant Characteristics Questionnaire This 9-item self-report measures parent perceptions of infant temperament X
Infant Social and Emotional Health Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment(ITSEA) In-depth analysis of emerging social-emotional development and intervention guidance17 subscales address four domains

166-item Parent Form and Child Care Provider Form

Infant Development Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (ASQ-3) is a developmental screening tool designed for use by early educators and health care professionals. It relies on parents as experts, is easy-to-use, family-friendly and creates the snapshot needed to catch delays and celebrate milestones. X

Pre and post tests may be used with postpartum clients. If clients are enrolled prenatally, then post-test only.

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